by By Saul McLeod published 2007. updated 2014
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow. but included that for a person to "grow", they have an environment that gives them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not establish as they should, a lot of like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water.
Rogers believed that every person can attain their goals, wishes and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took destination. This was 1 of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology and for a person to succeed in their potential many different factors must be satisfied.
" The organism has a person straightforward tendency and striving - to actualize, keep, and enhance the experiencing organism вЂќ (Rogers, 1951, p. 487).
Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both equally psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do seeing that on the way we perceive our situation. "As no one particular else can know how we perceive, we are the most beneficial experts on ourselves."
Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have 1 elementary motive, that is certainly the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and accomplish the highest amount of 'human-beingness' we can. Like a flower that will grow to its extensive potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and achieve their potential if their environment is effective enough.
However, unlike a flower, the potential in the individual human is unique, and we are meant to build up in different ways according to our personality. Rogers believed that people are inherently nice and creative. They become destructive only when a poor self-concept or external constraints override the valuing plan. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to attain self-actualization they must be inside of a state of congruence.
This usually means that self-actualization occurs when a personвЂ™s вЂњideal self вЂќ (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image ). Rogers describes an individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person. The main determinant of whether we will become self-actualized is childhood working experience.
The Fully Functioning Person
Rogers believed that every person could generate their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When they did so self-actualization took destination. For Rogers (1961) people who are able be self-actualize, which seriously isn't all of us, are called fully functioning persons. This would mean that the person is in touch with the in this article and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, continually growing and changing.
In quite a few ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and a single that people do not ultimately get. It is wrong to think of this as an stop or completion of lifeвЂ™s journey; rather it can be a approach of always becoming and changing.
Rogers identified 5 characteristics on the fully functioning person:
1. Open to adventure . each positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through (rather than resorting to ego defence mechanisms).
two. Existential living . in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the current, not always exploring back again to the past or forward to the longer term (i.e. living for your moment).
3. Trust feelings . feeling, instincts and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted. PeopleвЂ™s possess decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices.
four. Creativity . creative thinking and risk taking are options of the personвЂ™s life. A person does not enjoy safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences.
5. Fulfilled life . person is happy and satisfied with life, and always wanting for new challenges and experiences.
For Rogers, fully functioning people are clearly adjusted, perfectly balanced and interesting to know. Often these kinds of people are excessive achievers in society. Critics claim that the fully functioning person is known as a product of Western culture. In other cultures, these types of as Eastern cultures, the achievement for the group is valued a lot more highly than the achievement of any a person person.
Central to Rogers' personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent list of perceptions and beliefs about oneself".
The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is our inner personality, and are usually likened to the soul, or Freud's psyche. The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. Two primary resources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others.
According to Rogers (1959), we prefer to sense, encounter and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each individual other, the a whole lot more consistent or congruent we are also, the higher our feeling of self-worth.
A person is alleged to be inside of a state of incongruence if many of the totality of their knowledge is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted within the self-image.
The humanistic method states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept comprises of three parts:
Self worth (or self-esteem ) - what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and have been formed from the interaction belonging to the child with the mother and father.
Self-image - How we see ourselves, which is important to effective psychological health. Self-image incorporates the influence of our body image on inner personality. In a straight forward degree, we could perceive ourselves as a strong or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an effect on how a person thinks, feels and behaves around the world.
Ideal self - This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic - i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood isn't really the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
Self Worth and Positive Regard
Carl Rogers (1951) seen the child as having two general needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth.
How we think about ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance both of those to psychological health and to the likelihood that we can gain goals and ambitions in life and reach self-actualization.
Self-worth may be seen as a continuum from very big to very small. For Carl Rogers (1959) a person who has excessive self-worth, that's, has confidence and positive feelings about him or herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people.
A person with very low self-worth may avoid challenges in life, not accept that life is often painful and unhappy at times, and will be defensive and guarded with other people.
Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and have been formed from the interaction from the child with the mother and father. As a child grows more mature, interactions with significant others will affect feelings of self-worth.
Rogers believed that we really want to be regarded positively by others; we need to have to think valued, respected, treated with affection and loved. Positive regard is to do with how other people evaluate and judge us in social interaction. Rogers made a distinction relating to unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard.
Unconditional positive regard is where parents, significant others (together with the humanist therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is. Positive regard is just not withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake.
The consequences of unconditional positive regard are that the person feels free of cost to try things out and make mistakes, even though this may lead to gaining it worse at times. People who are able to self-actualize are way more in all likelihood to have received unconditional positive regard from others, most definitely their parents in childhood.
Conditional positive regard is where positive regard, praise and approval, depend upon the child, for example, behaving in ways that the parents think correct. Hence the child isn't loved for that person he or she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in ways approved by the parent(s).
Within the extreme, a person who constantly seeks approval from other people is very likely only to have veteran conditional positive regard as a child.
A personвЂ™s ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and experiences within the person. Hence, a difference may exist somewhere between a personвЂ™s ideal self and actual practical experience. This is called incongruence.
Where a personвЂ™s ideal self and actual encounter are consistent or very similar, a state of congruence exists. Rarely, if ever, does a total state of congruence exist; all people working experience a certain amount of incongruence.
The event of congruence is dependent on unconditional positive regard. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to accomplish self-actualization they must be in a very state of congruence.
According to Rogers, we wish to come to feel, practical knowledge and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self.
The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each individual other, the added consistent or congruent we are as well as higher our perception of self-worth. A person is claimed to be inside a state of incongruence if several of the totality of their knowledge is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted inside of the self-image.
Incongruence is "a discrepancy among the actual know-how with the organism together with the self-picture with the individual insofar as it represents that adventure.
As we prefer to see ourselves in ways that are consistent with our self-image, we may use defense mechanisms like denial or repression in order to experience less threatened by a number of what we consider to be our undesirable feelings. A person whose self-concept is incongruent with her or his real feelings and experiences will defend basically because the truth hurts.
Carl Rogers Quotes
"When I search within the world I'm pessimistic, but when I appear at people I am optimistic."
"The very essence belonging to the creative is its novelty, and hence we have no standard by which to judge it" (Rogers, 1961, p. 351).
"I have gradually come to one particular negative summary about the sensible life. It appears to be to me that the reliable life is absolutely not any fixed state. It is absolutely not, in my estimation, a state of virtue, or contentment, or nirvana, or happiness. It is not really a condition in which the individual is adjusted or fulfilled or actualized. To utilise psychological terms, it isn't really a state of drive-reduction, or tension-reduction, or homeostasis" (Rogers, 1967, p. 185-186).
"The reliable life is regarded as a system, not a state of being. It serves as a direction not a destination" (Rogers, 1967, p. 187).
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its present-day practice, implications and theory . London: Constable.
Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed inside the client-centered framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A study of the science. Vol. 3: Formulations in the person and therefore the social context . New York: McGraw Hill.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a person: A psychotherapists look at of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R. Stevens, B. Gendlin, E. T. Shlien, J. M. & Van Dusen, W. (1967). Person to person: The problem of being human: A new trend in psychology. Lafayette, CA: Real People Push.
How to cite this article:
McLeod, S. A. (2014). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html